[EPUB] ✻ Red Famine: Stalin's War on Ukraine, 1921-1933 Author Anne Applebaum – Dolove.info

Red Famine: Stalin's War on Ukraine, 1921-1933 Anne Applebaum s Red Famine is an important history of the Ukraine and USSR by default Applebaum provides meaningful context beginning with the 1917 Ukrainian Revolution, famine of the 1920s, Stalin s agricultural collectivation policies of the late 1920s and early 1930s, and Ukrainian nationalist sentiment and peasant resistance prior to focusing on the terror famine known as the Holodomor occurring between 1932 and 1934 Holodomor is a term derived from two Ukrainian words for hunger and extermination This famine was not created by crop failure or poor weather, it was a man made famine created by Stalin s agricultural policies, grain quotas and associated penalties, including food confiscation inside homes, for not meeting those policies , etc Ukrainian peasants, especially the Kulaks, that exercised resistance, were treated especially harsh At least five million died during this famine, the vast majority in the Ukraine Despite this tragic history and subsequent struggles, the Ukraine stands today as an independent nation. Red Famine Stalin s War on Ukraine by Anne Applebaum is the history of Russian Ukranian relations from 1917 1934 centering on Russian atrocities Applebaum is an American journalist and Pulitzer Prize winning author who has written extensively about communism and the development of civil society in Central and Eastern Europe She is a visiting Professor of Practice at the London School of Economics, where she runs Arena, a project on propaganda and disinformation She has also been an editor at The Economist and The Spectator, and a member of the editorial board of The Washington Post.The Ukraine is the birth place of the earliest Russian settlements Kiev is called the mother of Russian Cities or a cradle of the Rus The historic flux of borders and conquered lands and peoples had created friction between the various nationalities that became apparent with the fall of the Romanov dynasty Ukraine saw it was time to break from Moscow s rule or rather St Petersburg s rule.Instead, Ukraine found itself in the middle of a battle ground The Bolsheviks wanted the territory The White Russian Russian army defended but without much care for the Ukrainians The people were pummelled by both sides With the defeat of the White armies, The Bolsheviks systematically slaughtered tens of thousands of Cossacks The Bolsheviks saw Ukraine as their bread basket Quotas on wheat and forced collectivization created chaos and mass death Peasants fought against losing their land, live stock, and possessions Although there was resistance, it was far from organized and effective Later, Stalin s paranoid mind saw any resistance real or imagined as a threat to the USSR Many were executed for a variety of crimes Many simply just disappeared.The wheat taken from the Ukrainian farms was not just taken and sold back to the farmers as bread or even used to feed Russia It was exported for hard currency The five year plans and quotas existed independently of reality When yields were lower than required Moscow took actions like limiting communal tractors forcing manual and disappearing animal labor Instead of finding solutions restrictions were added By the time of the 1933 famine, there was not enough healthy or living people to plant and harvest There was no carrot and stick only the stick The Springtime brought with it not the smell of flowers or new life but the decay of rotting bodies Famine is perhaps not the most accurate word for the human catastrophe in Ukraine There was food but it was for the consumption others outside the Ukraine and even Russia People were dying in front of rows of grain Stalin feared Ukrainian nationalism as a threat to Soviet power Lenin recruited Ukrainians under the guise of Soviet unity rather than Russian unity Stalin, however, simply wanted to crush any resistance from organized threats to women and children stealing a handful of wheat It is estimated that three million Ukrainians died, mostly of starvation, in 1933 Applebaum also describes the process of starvation on the body and the mind Using declassified records and documents along with first hand hand experiences she captures the systematic terror and suffering that is one of the worlds mostly forgotten tragedies When the world was not looking, Stalin waged war on people in his own country killing millions with systematic starvation Red Famine details the atrocities, failures, and indifference that allowed the senseless slaughter of millions. Ann Applebaum does not disappoint A thorough account of the most terrifying times in the history of Ukraine Superb panorama and the background Ms Applebaum presents us with not just the several years of the famine itself but also explains in detail the reasons behind the tragedy of millions of innocent people The Author colleced accounts by ordinary people, and some are truly horryfing, making us aware of the fact that often our own suffering makes us immune to the suffering of others. In Red Famine, the author, Anne Applebaum, does an extremely good job of explaining just what happened in 1931 34 when an estimated 3.9 million people starved to death and why Starting with the Russian Civil War that followed World War I, the author looks at the Ukrainian desire for independence and why Ukraine had never been able to obtain that independence She looks at the Bolsheviks strategy to subdue the Ukraine and keep it part of Russia and by extension the USSR While discussing Ukrainian desire for independence, Ms Applebaum also looks at the Ukrainian culture, language and religion She explains just how close the Ukraine came to independence during the civil war She opines if the various independence groups could have cooperated with one another and with the White Russians, there was very could chance independence could have been achived She also gives reasons as to why that cooperation never took place.After the Civil War, the author looks at the Bolsheviks first attempts to collectivize agriculture and its failure in the early 20 s The collectivization was not successful and less grain was collected than projected This led to famine During this famine, the gov t admitted they had a problem and accepted outside help including from the US Lenin and by extension the Soviet gov t ended up backing down and leaving the Ukrainian agriculture system alone, allowing the peasant farmers to own their own land and animals and keep their language and religion In this section the author also give a pretty good summation of why the collectivization failed However, I found this section to be a little dry and text bookish.Fast forward to the late 20 s and after the power struggle was resolved following Lenin s death, Stalin again decides to force the collectivization of agriculture, not only in the Ukraine, other agriculture regions of the USSR One thing I found interesting about Stalin s initial attempts, is that they used a carrot and stick approach the peasant could keep his land, but had to pay very high taxes If he collectivized, the peasant would have access to the latest techniques and equipment At the same time this was going on the Government in Moscow was in dire need of hard currency and signed contracts to deliver grain than the area was producing Moscow and by extension, Stalin, thought the deference could be made up with the collectivization of agriculture.Ms Applebaum s descriptions of what happened next are heart rending I feel that her descriptions of the famine is by far the best parts of the book They are difficult to read She describes the efforts the Soviet Gov t made to collect grain and other food stuffs In addition to grain, the collectors took seeds, the produce of the small vegetable gardens people were allowed, farm animals both food and working, any stored food, food sent in from the outside, and even farm equipment The collectors literally took every morsel they could find, leaving both the collective farmers and the Kulaks both without anything to eat or plant the next spring As this is going on, the author also recounts the Soviet efforts to stamp out the Ukrainian culture, language and religion.Finally while recounting the famine, the author looks at just what extreme hunger does to people She tells of the apathy in the starving population People would literally step over dead and dying children as they went about their daily tasks with out a second thought Many attempted to leave the Ukraine Steppes which was forbidden and make it to the cities, which were relatively well fed or out the Ukraine entirely Finally she looks at the cannibalism that occurred and the rationale behind it It boils down to, They are going to die anyway so While not universal, parents ate children, children ate parents and many people just ate those who died Ms Applebaum looks at the effect of this on the culture as a whole and how some accepted it and others looked on it with horror Ms Applebaum includes several pictures of the starving and dead that are believed to be the only photos taken of famine victims The final section of the book looks at how the Soviet Officials from Stalin down covered up the famine They did this through travel restrictions, just flatly denying anyone was starving, manipulating the foreign press amoung other methods The author looks at the NY Times correspond William Durranty s reporting, which also denied anyone was starving in the Ukraine and won him a Pulitzer Prize The gov t also refused to release the 1937 census that showed 8 10 million people missing from projection and eliminated killed many of those who worked on it Until the day of its breakup, the USSR denied that there was ever a famine in the Ukraine during the 1930sTo sum this up This first half of the narrative is a little dry and some ways reads like a text book However, when the author starts describing the hows, whys and effects of the 1931 34 famine, it is in many ways mesmerizing One niggling criticism, the author uses the Ukrainian Russian spelling of all place names with out a cross reference to the common Western spellings Some are easy to figure out, others I still have no idea Even with that, this is still a solid 4 star read. This book has two interrelated themes Ukraine s path toward independence and the famine that occurred there 1932 1933.The history of Ukraine and Russia must be viewed together, and so the Bolshevik Revolution, the Civil War that followed, first Lenin s and then Stalin s reign are discussed too The book starts in 1917 and concludes in the present The famine that occurred 1921 1922, and for which international aid was given, came to be followed by the Great Famine of 1932 1933 The latter famine came to be known as the Holodomor This word in translation means to kill by starvation , thus inferring that the famine was not simply due to natural causes but was instead purposefully instigated, an act of genocide led by Stalin In an epilog, the author discusses if the latter famine should be classified as genocide In any case, be that so or not, to understand the relations between Ukraine and Russia today, the past must be understood It is this that is the purpose of the book A clear and succinct introduction explains all of this Knowing at the start that the genocide question will be discussed at the end, a reader reads with this question prominently at the fore The book begins with the first Ukrainian War of Independence,1917 to 1921 The February Revolution of 1917 led ethnic groups in the Russian Empire to seek increased autonomy and self determination The Ukrainian National Movement was formed In June 1917, in Kiev, the Ukrainian People s Republic was declared, a sovereign state to be governed by the socialist dominated Central Rada But it was short lived Year by year we follow events collectivization, blacklisting, deportations, the famine of 1920 1921, liquidation of the kulaks and then unrealistic grain, livestock and vegetable requisitions imposed on a people without food Travel restrictions so people could not flee The first half of the book, covering the years before the famine, were a struggle for me I was seriously considering putting the book aside The background information is essential, but dry in its presentation Too many examples to prove one point Too repetitive Not engaging The famine is heartrendingly depicted Physical and psychological effects of famine are documented What was eaten when no food was available What was done with the dead Personal experiences are told People who lived through the famine are quoted There is however little reference to source material We are told a memoirist or multiple witnesses or a Polish diplomat claim but why are we not give the names of those making these statements Yet I do not doubt the validity of the claims made or the horror of what occurred Thereafter follow chapters devoted first to a discussion of death statistics and then the years after the famine The absence of international aid, resettlement programs, Russification, purging of Ukrainian officials and destruction of evidence that the famine had occurred Stalin claimed the 1937 census to be invalid It showed all too clearly how many had died These chapters were not dry Finally, the epilog It presents a straightforward analysis of whether the famine should or should not be considered a genocide Well, it all depends on whose definition one goes by Raphael Lemkin 1900 1959 , who coined the word genocide and who initiated the Genocide Convention signed on December 9, 1948 OR the United Nation s Convention on the Crime of Genocide itself Lemkin referred to the mass killing of Jews in the Second World War, the killing of Armenians by the Turks and the Great Famine of 1932 1933 as genocide, but the Convention, which today constitutes the basis for international law, states that genocide is a state sponsored assault on an entire group of people or on a whole nation That not all Ukrainians were targeted means the famine should not be classified as genocide.To properly judge the events that took place in the Ukraine one must compare these events with what was happening elsewhere I wish had been spoken of the famine in the Volga region and Kazakhstan There is some information, but not enough I very much liked the narration by Suzanne Toren The reading is clear and at a tempo that allows listeners time to think Many Russian names are given in the book s first half these are too often hard to distinguish This is no fault of the narrator, but it does make listening difficult than reading I do not like that her intonation and pauses emphasize which events are evil I am perfectly capable of figuring this out myself I have given the narration four stars. The Holodomor Ukrainian derived from , to kill by starvation , also known as the Terror Famine and Famine Genocide in Ukraine, and before the widespread use of the term Holodomor , and sometimes currently also referred to as the Great Famine, and The Ukrainian Genocide of 1932 33 was a man made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed an officially estimated 7 million to 10 million people It was part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932 33, which affected the major grain producing areas of the country wiki sourced Description In 1929 Stalin launched his policy of agricultural collectivization in effect a second Russian revolution which forced millions of peasants off their land and onto collective farms The result was a catastrophic famine, the most lethal in European history At least 5 million people died between 1931 and 1933 in the USSR But instead of sending relief the Soviet state made use of the catastrophe to rid itself of a political problem In Red Famine, Anne Applebaum argues that than 3 million of those dead were Ukrainians who perished not because they were accidental victims of a bad policy but because the state deliberately set out to kill them.Applebaum proves what has long been suspected after a series of rebellions unsettled the province, Stalin set out to destroy the Ukrainian peasantry The state sealed the republic s borders and seized all available food Starvation set in rapidly, and people ate anything grass, tree bark, dogs, corpses In some cases, they killed one another for food Devastating and definitive, Red Famine captures the horror of ordinary people struggling to survive extraordinary evil.Red Famine by Anne Applebaum review did Stalin deliberately let Ukraine starve Anne Appelbaum s Red Famine Stalin s War on Ukraine, 1921 1933 is a dazzling work of synthesis history that addresses much than the Ukrainian Famine of 1932 33 a.k.a The Great Famine , a.k.a The Holodomor , a.k.a The Ukrainian Genocide It also covers the Ukrainian War of Independence 1917 1921 , the resistance of the Ukrainian peasantry to collectivization of agriculture in 1931, the attack on the use of the Ukrainian language and the elimination of the Ukrainian intellectual classes that coincided with the famine, the subsequent purge of the Ukrainian communist party, the cover up that followed and the active assistance of Western journalists in the cover up.It was Robert Conquest s Harvest of Sorrow published in 1986 that first established for the Anglo Saxon world that there had indeed been a state induced famine in the Ukraine that killed somewhere between 3 and 6 million people in the Ukraine in the years of 1932 and 1933.Conquest suggested that the famine might have been the result of a combination of unfavorable climatic conditions and communist incompetence rather than evil intentions Appelbaum instead argues that bad weather was not in any way a factor in the disaster Stalin had simply decided that he needed to crush the Ukrainian peasantry which had supported an independent Ukrainian state during the four years following the 1917 Russian Revolution and which had violently resisted the collectivization of agriculture In 1932, Stalin decided to act He ordered the seizure of grain and food in the Ukrainian countryside to create food shortages Those districts which had most actively resisted collectivization and given the greatest support to Ukrainian independence were the ones subjected to the most drastic food seizures Red Famine Stalin s War on Ukraine, 1921 1933 is an extremely important book that should be read by anyone interested in European history in the 20th century. A wrenching and thorough account of the way Stalin created the famine that killed easily 3.5 million Ukrainians, and maybe far The eyewitness testimonies of the starvation are devastating The last chapter is an especially interesting discussion of where the famine fits in the history of Genocide For anyone interested in the history of the first decades of the Soviet Union, this is a must read. Although this book is about the Holodomor the word is derived from the Ukrainian words, holod or hunger and mor or extermination or famine of 1932 33, it is actually about much than that It is about the repression of the Ukrainian intellectual and political class, of the Sovietisation of Ukraine, the collectivisation of agriculture and the attempts to wipe out Ukrainian culture and language Ironically, it was the fertile soil and relatively mild climate of Ukraine, which led to them becoming so valuable to the Soviet Union The country had two harvests a year and was responsible for feeding far than their own region The author takes us back to the revolution of 1917 and traces how the period of upheaval saw optimism for Ukraine, but, by 1918, Lenin was making plans to occupy the area In fact, the first half of this history looks at the various uprisings, uneasy periods of peace, discontent, crisis and rationing, which led up to the events of 1932 33.By 1930, collectivisation of farming led from what had been a loose organisation of farming, by the Soviet Union, to tight control and grain requisitioning demands which were impossible to fulfil There was pressure on the agricultural peasants to send and grain outside Ukraine, but the farmers themselves lost control of their lives and lost enthusiasm for working the land However, Stalin s policies led to famine across the grain growing regions of the USSR and nowhere than Ukraine Not only was the country under pressure to keep producing and yet not keeping enough crops to keep them alive, but anyone caught stealing food faced many years in a labour camp, or death By the end of 1932, over 100,000 people had been sent to camps and 4,500 were executed.The author then goes on to the actual famine period which is terrible to read about All grain now was t be collected to fulfil Russian demands and no excuses were accepted However, although activists swept through villages taking not only grain, but fruit, seeds, vegetables, flour indeed everything from crusts on the table to the family cow there was no sympathy for the Ukrainian people It is clear that Soviet newspapers presented the starving population as unpatriotic arguing they did not care about the workers or the 5 year plan Although this is a serious historical work, it is not dry or dull in any way There can be nothing about this book which fails to move you reading of children who die during lessons at school, of the distrust, suspicion and lack of empathy as witnesses became indifferent to the suffering around them, is both tragic and horribly real Yet, this is as much about the attempts by the Ukrainian people to retain their culture and language, as it was to resist the government s attempts to starve their nation I must admit I knew little about Ukrainian history, but this was an eye opening read about a terrible period of history and of a people who survived against the odds. From The Author Of The Pulitzer Prize Winning Gulag And The National Book Award Finalist Iron Curtain, A Revelatory History Of One Of Stalin S Greatest CrimesIn Stalin Launched His Policy Of Agricultural Collectivization In Effect A Second Russian Revolution Which Forced Millions Of Peasants Off Their Land And Onto Collective Farms The Result Was A Catastrophic Famine, The Most Lethal In European History At Least Million People Died Between And In The USSR But Instead Of Sending Relief The Soviet State Made Use Of The Catastrophe To Rid Itself Of A Political Problem In Red Famine, Anne Applebaum Argues That Than Million Of Those Dead Were Ukrainians Who Perished Not Because They Were Accidental Victims Of A Bad Policy But Because The State Deliberately Set Out To Kill ThemApplebaum Proves What Has Long Been Suspected After A Series Of Rebellions Unsettled The Province, Stalin Set Out To Destroy The Ukrainian Peasantry The State Sealed The Republic S Borders And Seized All Available Food Starvation Set In Rapidly, And People Ate Anything Grass, Tree Bark, Dogs, Corpses In Some Cases, They Killed One Another For Food Devastating And Definitive, Red Famine Captures The Horror Of Ordinary People Struggling To Survive Extraordinary Evil


About the Author: Anne Applebaum

Journalist and Pulitzer Prize winning author who has written extensively about communism and the development of civil society in Central and Eastern Europe Since 2006, she is a columnist and member of the editorial board of the Washington Post.She is married to Rados aw Sikorski, the Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs They have two children, Alexander and Tadeusz.


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